Fruit Fly and the Home Garden (Australia)
GAMOUR (Gestion agroécologique des mouches des légumes)
HAW-FLYPM (Hawaii Area Fruit Fly Pest Management Program)
The Regional Symposium on the Management of Fruit Flies in Near East Countries, Hammamet, Tunisia, 6-8 November 2012, was organized jointly by FAO, FAO-IAEA, AAEA, NEPPO, IOBC North Africa Commission, DG Plant Protection in Tunisia and the Tunisian Association of Plant Protection (ATPP).
The symposium included several key speakers, oral presentations, posters, a round table and a field trip, and dealt mainly with the following issues:
· brief background, history and geographical distribution of fruit flies;
· biology, ecology, life cycle, host preferences and nature of damage of fruit flies;
· detection and phytosanitary measures (pathways);
· management strategies:
- semiochemicals (mass trapping, bait stations);
- sanitation (good agricultural practices);
- Sterile Insect Technique (SIT);
- Male Annihilation Technique (MAT);
- chemical control (present status of available active substances);
· contingency measures to respond to outbreaks;
· problems outside the Near East region, especially in Africa, Asia and South Europe;
· round table: conclusions, recommended IPM-fruit flies strategies;
· technical and tourist trip to Cap bon (Centre Technique des Agrumes – CTA), Tunisia.
Biological techniques will soon find their way into the mango orchards. This is the challenge of Biophyto, winner of the Casdar 2011 call for projects in Réunion. The objective is to produce a mango without insecticide. The plan is an ambitious one indeed.
Bugs, flower midges, mealy bugs and fruit flies . Reunion mangoes are attacked by an army of harmful insects. The classical reflex: to eradicate them with insecticides. But in an era for the preservation of the environment, other means are envisaged.
A Return to Nature
The solution: to restore the natural balance in favor of animal and plant biodiversity in the field. This is the whole object of Biophyto that proposes a strategy of agro-ecological management of insect pests. . “By removing the insecticides and the introduction of plant biodiversity, beneficial insect populations increase and harmful insects decrease”, explains Jean-Philippe Deguine, agroecologist at CIRAD and project leader. “This will result in a regular agroecosystem.” Several techniques of plant biodiversity can be utilized. Among these, there are under cover systems, integrated weed management, plant traps, hedge and flower borders,etc. “In citrus orchards in Spain for example, it has been shown that vegetative covering allowed for the development of predatory soil fauna,” continues Jean-Philippe Deguine. Other predators - ants, spiders, rove beetles (or parasitoids) will be favored by biological conservation methods to control pests.
A Small Revolution
With the goal of zero insecticide on the horizon by 2014, the Biophyto project is a small revolution. Accredited the end of 2010 by the competitiveness cluster Qualitropic and the mixed network technology DevAB (Development of organic agriculture), the project relies on Biophyto's ten pilot sites located at mango growers, it brings together ten technical partners , of which CIRAD, the head of the project, along with its researchers and te chniciens from research units). It is in coherence with the the dynamic national plan of Ecophyto 2018 which aims to halve the use of pesticides by 2018. At Reunion, Biophyto follows the Gamour project that tackled the problem of vegetables flies. It has four main activities, each hosted by a partner. Armeflhor will lead the development of new plant biodiversity management practices. CIRAD is interested in the characterization of animal biodiversity and functional measurement services to achieve bio-ecological equilibriums. AROP-FL coordinate economic analysis and the study of the valorization of the production of mango. Finally, it is the chamber of agriculture that will ensure the valorization and dissemination of project results.
Towards a Healthy Mango
The project partners will have three years to design and evaluate new practices that characterize biodiversity in untreated orchards and to measure services rendering a biological balance, to study the forms of commercial valorization of mangoes produced and broadcast the results to the various beneficiaries. Soon, on the horizon a healthier mango. Consumer Advisory.
(Graines d'info no.59 Sept. 2011)
>>Read article (PDF- French only)
Le bio va-t-il bientôt percer son sillon dans les vergers de manguiers? C’est le défi du projet Biophyto, lauréat de l’appel à projets Casdar 2011, qui démarre à la Réunion. Objectif : produire une mangue sans insecticides. Le pari est ambitieux.
(Graines d'info no.59 Sept. 2011)
>>Lire l'article (PDF)
icipe's research threatens the fly’s survival, but red tape and disagreements give the fly a new lease of life.
Disagreements over the management of finances devoted to fruit fly control and turf wars among key agencies at the Ministry of Agriculture have prevented fruit growers in Kenya from benefitting from well researched and seemingly effective methods of controlling the pests.
As a result, farmers continue to lose billions of shillings while some of the country’s top performing
fruits are still locked out of the most lucrative international markets. Although accurate data on the
annual losses incurred have been difficult to come by, Dr Sunday Ekesi, the Head of Plant Health
Division at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe), who also heads the African
Fruit Fly Programme, estimates that the losses could be as much as $2 billion (Ksh. 186 billion).
Read Full Article (80Kb)
Cucurbit fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are major pests of vegetable crops in Reunion. Up to now, the protection of these crops relied mainly on agrochemistry. Broad spectrum insecticides are, however, considered as ineffective by producers, and are largely harmful to public health and to the environment. A project of research, development and education, was thus conceived in order to manage these pests using sustainable methodology. This innovative project, GAMOUR (a French abbreviation for agroecological management of cucurbit flies in Reunion), is one of the first such large-scale initiatives in the European Union. The project includes a wide spectrum of stakeholders, involved in research, training, development and the commercial sector. It further involves numerous producers, who are the principle beneficiaries of the project. GAMOUR relies on the three pillars of agroecological crop management: sanitation, habitat management and conservation biological control.
Action commenced early 2009 with three intensive agricultural pilot areas totaling about 50 hectares of crops and 30 farms. The technical package is further compatible with organic farming specifications, and the project also includes four pilot organic farms. The objective of the study was to examine the project’s performance on both intensive and organic pilot farms following two years of agroecological crop protection practices.
Four kinds of method were used for this assessment: (i) field experimentation of method effectiveness, (ii) monitoring of fly populations in pilot areas, (iii) socio-economic monitoring of crop production, (iv) farmer satisfaction surveys.
The results are highly encouraging: chemical spraying has been stopped while vegetable yields are higher or, at least, as high as before. As a consequence, farmers’ incomes are increasing. Field experimentation confirms the effectiveness of techniques first assessed under controlled research station conditions. In particular, sanitation is highly efficient, as it is applied using the locally designed “augmentorium” (a tent-like structure which sequesters adult flies emerging from infested fruit and allow the parasitoids to escape, via a net placed at the top of the structure). In addition, the trap plant (maize) concentrates more than 95% of fly populations, which are thereafter suppressed by food baits. Finally, mass trapping, without insecticides, is efficient for two of the three vegetable fly species present. As a result of these successes, farmers have quickly appropriated the project package.
These results confirm that agroecology is a suitable alternative to agrochemistry for crop protection purposes. There is now a plan to extend this methodology beyond the pilot project area, both within Reunion, and to other islands in the Indian Ocean. Moreover, this agroecological dynamic may now be adapted to other agricultural systems such as tomatoes, citrus and mangoes.
Pôle de protection des plantes
7 chemin de l'IRAT
Tél : +262 2 62 49 92 31
Fax : +262 2 62 49 92 93
Un projet de gestion agroécologique des mouches des légumes, Gamour, financé par le Ministère de l'Agriculture et de la Pêche, vient de démarrer en janvier 2009. Porté par le Cirad, ce projet est coordonné par la Chambre d'Agriculture pour 3 ans. Il rassemble une quinzaine de partenaires du développement agricole réunionnais.
Gamour, financé par le Ministère de l'Agriculture et de la Pêche, vient de démarrer en janvier 2009. Porté par le Cirad, ce projet est coordonné par la Chambre d'Agriculture pour 3 ans. Il rassemble une quinzaine de partenaires du développement agricole réunionnais.
Pôle de protection des plantes
7 chemin de l'IRAT
Tél : +262 2 62 49 92 31
Fax : +262 2 62 49 92 93
A 13-minute video "SOS Mangues" describes the efforts of a multi-national team in combating the problem of Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruitfly) in SENEGAL. The video, in French, is at http://tinyurl.com/43lopds.
--excerpted, with thanks, from the IPM-CRSP website.
icipe has assisted African farmers to participate in horticultural farming for local and export markets, which has rapidly become one of the most profitable enterprises on the continent. They have made breakthroughs in the control of indigenous fruit flies. They have also kept the invasive Bactrocera invadens at bay, while pioneering global knowledge on this highly notorious insect, which was previously ‘unknown to science’. In addition, they have been able to biologically control the destructive diamondback moth (DBM), one of the most devastating pests of cabbages. This has helped farmers in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda to engage in prosperous cabbage farming, while reducing the risk caused to their health, those of consumers and the environment by the previous excessive use of synthetic insecticides. For this and other success stories over the last 40 years click here.
A recently inaugurated website, Fruit Fly and the Home Garden, offers sdvice for gardeners in Australia.
This site aims to help gardeners make informed decisions about the control and prevention of fruit flies by selecting effective control approaches in line with gardening style, lifestyle and the prevailing fruit fly situation. Emphasis falls on preventing or minimizing fruit fly problems. The site is an initiative of the draft National Fruit Fly Strategy.
The 8th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance (ISFFEI) was held in Valencia (Spain) from Sunday 26 September to Friday 1 October 2010. The West African Fruit Fly Initiative (WAFFI) was represented by Dr. Antonio Sinzogan and Dr. Jean-François Vayssières (IITACIRAD / Cotonou-Benin).
About 370 specialists of Fruit Flies (Diptera Tephritidae) from around the world representing 58 countries participated. In scientific terms, the contributions have covered the main components (taxonomy, biology, ecology, behavior, sensu lato control ...) Inherent in the various programs targeting fruit flies such as:
· The taxonomy of fruit flies with new powerful biomolecular tools. An important point concerns Bactrocera invadens in sub-Saharan Africa: indeed its taxonomic status within the group Bactrocera dorsalis (which currently includes about fifty species) deserves further systematic research.
· The biology, ecology and behavior of different species of fruit flies of economic interest infesting several continents. One needs to be familiar with them on order to optimize sustainable IPM practices against these pest species.
· The genetic tools and their multiple applications in terms of taxonomy, phylogeny and / or sexing. If the tools of transgenesis (insertion of alien genes into the gene pool of a species) have become scientific tools used, their advantages as potential risks of their use have not ended the controversy.
· Control programs, including programs to combat large-scale ("Wide Area Program") which are essential to achieve good results: whether the methods of mass trapping of females or the use of attractive sites ("bait-stations") are widely developed in the Mediterranean, America and Africa (stations "M3" in South Africa), managing populations of B.invadens always appeal to a wide variety of complementary techniques. Thus, control methods practiced in Benin by WAFFI techniques will crop health fruit bitten (on the trees and ground) to the biological control with genera predators.
· In addition, programs to combat biological and microbiological testing were developed in West Africa and East
o Upgrading of the repulsive effects emitted by Oecophylla ants (Oecophylla longinoda) to protect the spawning of mango female fruit flies,
o We noted here that the regional control program against fruit flies of mango in West Africa (WAFF) is continuing with good results. The third year of this program has led to a second fruit citrus industry network integrating well-developed citrus networks in certain West African countries (South Benin Foutah Djallon in Guinea ...). The third year of this program has led to the creation of a second citrus fruit industry network by integrating certain well-developed networks in West African countries (South Benin Foutah Djallon in Guinea ...).
Dr Antonio Sinzogan and Jean-François Vayssières, CIRAD -I ITA, Cotonou – Bénin
Van Mele, P., Vayssières, J.F., Adandonon, A., Sinzogan, A. 2009. Ant cues affect the oviposition behaviour of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Africa. Physiological Entomology, 34(3): 256-261 Abstract. Although most studies on fruit fly oviposition behaviour focus on horizontal interactions with competitors and cues from host plants, vertical interactions with predators are poorly documented. The present study provides direct evidence indicating that the oviposition behaviour of the two main mango fruit fly species, Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) and Bactrocera invadens Drew-Tsurata & White, is affected by secretions of the dominant arboreal ant Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille). When offered ant-exposed and unexposed mangoes in the absence of the ants, both fly species are reluctant to land on ant-exposed fruits and, when having landed, often take off quickly and fail to oviposit. The number of puparia collected from unexposed mangoes is approximately eight-fold higher than from ant-exposed ones. The results obtained from laboratory experiments and field observations confirm that adult fruit flies are more affected through repellence by ant cues than by direct predation. The use of cues by fruit flies in predator avoidance has implications for evolutionary ecology, behavioural ecology and chemical ecology.
Adandonon, A., Vayssières, J.F., Sinzogan, A., Van Mele. 2009. Density of pheromone sources of the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda affects oviposition behaviour and damage by mango fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). International Journal of Pest Management, 55(4): 285-292 Abstract As damage by the fruit flies Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis cosyra is significantly reduced in mango trees with weaver ants, but we rarely observed adult flies being captured, we investigated whether Oecophylla pheromones affect fruit fly oviposition behaviour. Mangoes were collected within 1 m and 1-3 m distance from ant nests, and from ant-free trees. Using both choice and no-choice tests, fruit flies were allowed to oviposit on fruits for 72 h in the absence of ants. Flies landed significantly more and spent more time on fruit from ant-free than from ant-colonized trees. The density of ant pheromone sources significantly affected the oviposition time and the number of fruit fly pupae collected per kg fruit under greenhouse conditions. However, field data did not show any difference in damage for fruit collected within 1 m and 1-3 m distance from ant nests, suggesting that physical or visual mechanisms complement the repellencey effect of ant pheromones against fruit flies.
Van, Mele, P., Vayssières, J.F., Van Tellingen, E., Vrolijks, J. 2007. Effect of an African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda, in controlling mango fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Benin. J Econ Entomol, 100(3): 695-701 Abstract. Six mango, Mangifera indica L., plantations around Parakou, northern Benin, were sampled at 2-wk intervals for fruit fly damage from early April to late May in 2005. Mean damage ranged from 1 to 24% with a weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille), being either abundant or absent. The fruit fly complex is made up of Ceratitis spp. and Bactrocera invadens Drew et al., a new invasive species in West Africa. In 2006, Ceratitis spp. peaked twice in the late dry season in early April and early May, whereas B. invadens populations quickly increased at the onset of the rains, from mid-May onward. Exclusion experiments conducted in 2006 with 'Eldon', 'Kent', and 'Gouverneur' confirmed that at high ant abundance levels, Oecophylla significantly reduced fruit fly infestation. Although fruit fly control methods are still at an experimental stage in this part of the world, farmers who tolerated weaver ants in their orchard were rewarded by significantly better fruit quality. Conservation biological control with predatory ants such as Oecophylla in high-value tree crops has great potential for African and Asian farmers. Implications for international research for development at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research level are discussed
The World Bank has joined together with GlobalHort, the European Union, and the ACP, to organize a series of interactive seminars that will focus on challenges facing high-value agriculture in Southern and Eastern Africa. The seminar content addresses issues faced by fresh produce value chain stakeholders oriented toward local, regional and international export markets, and aims to identify potential solutions and specific steps to success.
The first in the series was Controlling the Fruit Fly in East Africa: Status, Challenges and Opportunities took place May 25, 2010 involving participants from Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and South Africa. Position paper coordinated by ICIPE. Position paper coordinated by ICIPE.
Presentations-Ethiopia -Kenya -Mozambique-South Africa-Tanzania
Articles-Fruit flies threats and fighting in Kenya by W. Otieno et al-Combating Fruit Flies in Eastern and Southern Africa (COFESA): Elements of a Strategy and Action Plan for a Regional Cooperation Program. An issue paper developed by Sunday Ekesi-Threat and responses to Bactrocera invadens in Southern and East African countries exporting to South Africa by D. Cassidy
The "Area-wide Fruit Fly Integrated Pest Management in Southand Southeast Asia” is a regional project funded by the Taiwanese development organization ICDF (International Cooperation and Development Fund) and supported by the Global Horticulture Initiative with a focus on adaptation and adoption of fruit fly IPM practices amongst smallholders producing fruit and vegetables. Under the coordination of the Bangkok-based Asian Institute of Technology and the FAO-IPM Program, the project is implemented by running Integrated Pest Management Programs in Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand, and might even be extended to Myanmar.
An article has been published on the GlobalHort website intitled Fruit Fly Management Project Takes Flight in Asia